Logical Fallacies

A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning. Logical fallacies are like tricks or illusions of thought, and they’re often very sneakily used by politicians and the media to fool people. Don’t be fooled! This website has been designed to help you identify and call out dodgy logic wherever it may raise its ugly, incoherent head. Rollover the icons above and click for examples.


Ad Hominem

Attacking the person making the argument rather than addressing the argument itself.


Misrepresenting or exaggerating someone’s argument to make it easier to attack.

False Cause (Post Hoc)

Assuming that because one event happened after another, the first event caused the second.

Circular Reasoning

Restating the argument rather than providing evidence to support it.

Appeal to Emotion

Using emotions to manipulate the audience instead of providing valid reasoning.

Appeal to Authority

Using the opinion of an authority figure as evidence in the argument, even if the authority is not an expert in the field.

Red Herring

Introducing irrelevant information to divert attention from the main issue.

Appeal to Tradition

Arguing that something should be done a certain way because it has always been done that way.

False Dichotomy

Presenting a situation as if there are only two possible outcomes, ignoring other possibilities.

Hasty Generalization

Drawing a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence.

Ad Populum (Bandwagon)

Arguing that a claim must be true because many people believe it.

Appeal to Ignorance

Arguing that a claim is true because it has not been proven false, or vice versa.

Burden of Proof Fallacy

Shifting the burden of proof from the person making the claim to the person questioning the claim.

No True Scotsman

Making an ad hoc attempt to retain an unreasoned assertion by excluding evidence.

Slippery Slope

Suggesting that a specific event will set off a chain of negative events.

Related Notes